The exemptions

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1988 Alternative schools

The 1988 Chicago School Reform Act allowed alternative schools, such as those serving incarcerated students, to operate without LSCs.

1995 Schools on probation

Under revisions to the reform act, the School Board may remove principals from schools it places on academic probation and then appoint interim principals to serve at the board’s pleasure.

1995 Schools temporarily without a contract principal

When the School Board removes a contract principal for cause at a non-probation school, the chief executive officer appoints the interim principal, who serves out the removed principal’s contract.

1996 Small schools

A 1996 law permitted appointed school councils in place of elected LSCs at schools the board designates as “small schools.” Unlike elected LSCs, the appointed councils can only advise the chief executive officer on principal selection and other matters.

1996 Charter schools

The state Legislature created 45 charters, 15 in Chicago, for schools that would be run independently of the local school district. In 2003, it boosted Chicago’s total to 30.

2001 Contract schools

An innovation under CEO Arne Duncan’s administration, contract schools remain part of the school system but are governed by an educational non-profit organization.

2002 Small schools within regular high schools

A centerpiece of the Duncan administration, struggling neighborhood high schools were encouraged to divide into clusters of separately operated small schools.

2003 Miltary schools

The School Board passed a policy allowing military schools to operate with an advisory council that includes some military personnel.